|Birth:||4th July 1959, Islington, London|
|Nationality:||Finland (permanent resident of Australia)|
Founding Director, interim CEO, China Matters, 1 August 2020 to present.
Chief Executive Officer, China Matters, February 2015 – July 2019.
Visiting Professor, United States Studies Centre, University of Sydney, Jan 2014 – Dec 2015.
Nonresident Fellow, Lowy Institute for International Policy, Sydney, Jan 2014-June 2015.
Director of East Asia Program, Lowy Institute for International Policy, Sydney, April 2011–December 2013.
Director of China and Global Security Programme, Senior Researcher, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), based in Beijing, March 2009–March 2011.
Senior Researcher, Finnish Institute of International Affairs, based in Beijing, 2008–2009.
Director of China Programme, Finnish Institute of International Affairs, based in Beijing, 2004–2007.
Senior Researcher, Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA), based in Hong Kong, 2002–2004.
Lecturer, Adjunct Faculty, Syracuse University/Hong Kong Center, Courses in Political History and Political Economies of East Asia, fall 2002, spring 2003, spring 2004.
Researcher, Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA), Helsinki, 1998–2001.
Far East correspondent based in Beijing, Suomen Kuvalehti, Finland’s leading news weekly magazine, 1992–1997. In 1995 also part-time stringer for The Guardian (London).
Foreign news reporter, Helsingin Sanomat, Finland’s largest daily newspaper, 1990 – 1992.
Fellow, Harvard University, Kennedy School of Government, Shorenstein Barone Center on Press, Politics, & Public Policy, 1990.
Researcher, based in Beijing, for Finland’s Ministry of Trade & Industry, 1989, topic of research: “China’s Decision-making policies”
English teacher, Shandong Institute of Economics, Jinan, China 1987 –1988.
Select published works:
‘Why should Australia be concerned about… rising tensions in the Taiwan Strait’, China Matters Explores, February 2021, forthcoming.
A New China Narrative for Australia, China Matters, 27 June 2019.
“Is there a problem with…Australia’s China narrative?“, China Matters Explores, June 2018.
Submission to Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security for the Inquiry into the Foreign Influence Transparency Scheme Bill 2017, China Matters, 14 February 2018. Read a Sydney Morning Herald article about the submission
“Is there a problem with…Chinese International Students?“, China Matters Explores, 21 September 2017.
“What does China want. Xi Jinping and the path to greatness”, Australian Foreign Affairs, 2017.
“Does Trump’s presidency mean Australia needs a Plan B – toward China?”, Asia Society, 30 June 2017.
“The US and China: A Mature and Interdependent Relationship“, United State Studies Centre, 10 May 2016.
The New Arctic Governance (eds. with Neil Melvin), Oxford University Press, February 2016.
“North East Asia eyes the Arctic” with Seong-Hyon Lee in The New Artic Governance (eds. with Neil Melvin), Oxford University Press, February 2016.
“The PLA and maritime security actors” in Philip Saunders and Andrew Scobell (eds.) The PLA’s role in national security policy making, Stanford University Press, 2015.
“Domestic actors and the fragmentation of China’s foreign policy” in Robert S. Ross and Jo Inge Bekkevold (eds.) China in the Era of Xi Jinping Domestic and Foreign Policy Challenges, Georgetown University Press, 2016.
“China and the Arctic” Lowell Dittmer and Maochun Yu (eds.) Handbook of Chinese security, Routledge, 2015.
China’s unpredictable maritime security actors, Lowy Institute Report, Sydney: Lowy Institute for International Policy, December 2014.
“Australia’s relations with China in turbulence”, The Asan Forum, 25 January 2014.
China Foreign Policy Dilemma, Lowy Institute Analysis, Lowy Institute for International Policy, 2013.
The North East Asian states’ interests in the Arctic and possible cooperation with the Kingdom of Denmark (with Seong-Hyon Lee), Report prepared for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, SIPRI, April 2013.
China’s Arctic aspirations (with Jingchao Peng), SIPRI Policy Paper, Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 2012.
In search of political trust: Australia-China relations, Lowy Institute Policy Brief, Sydney: Lowy Institute for International Policy, 2012.
Northeast Asia turns its attention to the Arctic, NBR Analysis Brief, The National Bureau of Asian Research, December 2012.
“China’s foreign policy in the new era” in Christer Pursiainen (ed.) Post-communist modernisation: China and Russia at the crossroads. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
“Australia’s strategy toward China,” in Jung-Ho Bae and Jae H. Ku (eds.) China’s domestic politics and foreign policies and major countries strategies towards China, Korea Institute for National Unification, 2012.
China’s energy and security relations with Russia (with Paul Holtom, Dean Knox and Jingchao Peng), SIPRI Policy Paper, no. 29, Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 2011.
New foreign policy actors in China (with Dean Knox), SIPRI Policy Paper, no. 26, Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 2010.
China prepares for an ice-free Arctic, SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security no. 2, Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 2010.
“The myth of a Sino-Russian challenge to the West” (with Hiski Haukkala), International Spectator, vol. 44, no 3, September 2009.
“China’s diplomacy toward Africa: Drivers and constraints”, International Relations of the Asia Pacific, vol. 9, 2009.
“China” in Anna Korppoo et al (eds.), International Toward a new climate regime? Views of China, India, Japan, Russia and the United States on the road to Copenhagen, FIIA Report no. 19, Helsinki: Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 2009.
“Does China have an energy diplomacy? Reflections on China’s energy security and its international dimensions”, in Antonio Marquina Barrio (ed.) Energy Security. Visions from Asia and Europe, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
“Societal developments in China” in Huldt et al. (eds.) Strategic Yearbook 2017: China rising: Reactions, assessments and strategic consequences, Swedish National Defence College & Finnish National Defence University, 2008.
“A ‘Greater Chinese Union’ – Striving toward a solution of Taiwan’s unresolved future status”, Asia-Europe Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, 2008.
“China Aims High in Science and Technology” in Linda Jakobson (ed.) Innovation with Chinese Characteristics. High Tea Research in China. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
“The burden of ‘non-interference’”, China Economic Quarterly, Q2 2007.
“China and the worldwide search for energy security” (with Daojiong Zha) Asia Pacific Review, vol. 13, no. 2, 2006.
“The implications of China’s rise for Asia and Europe”, UPI Briefing Paper 5/2006, Helsinki: Finnish Institute of International Affairs.
“Greater Chinese Union”, Washington Quarterly, Summer 2005.
Kiinan vaikeat valinnat. Yhteiskunnallisen murroksen tiellä [book: China´s Tough Choices. On the Path of Societal Transition], Helsinki: Edita 2005.
“China´s foreign policy in transition” in China´s transforming society and foreign policy (with Angang Hu & Mingming Shen), FIIA report 11, Helsinki: Finnish Institute of International Affairs 2005.
“Pursuing more effective governance: Villagers’ committee elections and their implications in China” in Jude Howell (ed.), Governance in China, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2004.
Taiwan Strait IV: How an ultimate political settlement might look (co-author), Asia Report no. 75, Brussels: International Crisis Group, 26 February 2004.
Taiwan’s challenge to China and the world, Part II: A Greater Chinese Union offers best political solution, YaleGlobal Online 15.3.2004.
“Playing ball across the Strait”, International Herald Tribune, 5 March 2004.
“SARS and its aftermath in China. A blessing in disguise for President Hu Jintao?” in Tapani Vaahtoranta & Teresa Pohjola (eds.) Yearbook of Finnish Foreign Policy 2004, Helsinki: Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 2004.
Selvitys Kiinan yhteiskunnallisesta ja talouspoliittisesta kehityksestä [Report on Political and Economic Developments in China commissioned by the Prime Minister’s Office of Finland], Valtioneuvoston kanslia 23/2004, Helsinki: Edita 2004.
Taiwan’s unresolved status. Visions for the future and implications for EU foreign policy, FIIA Report 8, Helsinki: Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 2004.
“Chinese leaders face multi-faceted pressures,” Unitas, Nordea Economic Review, 2/2003 (in Finnish, Swedish & English).
Miljoner sanninger, Tio år i Kina (Swedish edition of A million truths. A decade in China), Stockholm: Bonniers, 2001.
“EU ei saa tuloksia aikaan Koreoissa ilman USA:ta” (EU will not achieve results in Korea without the US, Guest column), Helsingin Sanomat (Vieraskynä) May 4, 2001.
Linda Jakobson-Marja Sarvimäki, Perinteen taika. Nykyaika Kiinassa, Etelä-Koreassa ja Japanissa [The Spell of Tradition. Contemporary Life in China, South Korea and Japan]. Helsinki: WSOY, 2001. (Documentary book about middle-class family attitudes and values in Beijing, Taipei, Seoul and Tokyo.)
Linda Jakobson-Christer Pursiainen, Post-Communist modernisation at the Crossroads: Russia and China in comparative perspective, UPI Working Papers, Helsinki, 24/2001. Presented at the ISA Convention, Chicago, February 2001.
“The Taiwan that Beijing doesn’t want to see,” Washington Post, Outlook, March 12, 2000.
The Korean Peninsula: Is Kim Dae-jung’s pursuit of a Korean Confederation realistic? UPI Working Papers 21/1999, Helsinki: Finnish Institute of International Affairs.
Blazing new trails: Village committees’ elections in P.R. China, UPI Working Papers 19/1999, Helsinki: Finnish Institute of International Affairs.
“China’s Crisis is a Loss of Faith”, Washington Post, 1 August 2000.
A million truths. Ten years in China. New York: M. Evans Publishing Co, 1998. (See Foreign Affairs review by Lucian Pye)
Miljoona totuutta. Vuosikymmen Kiinassa [A million truths. A decade in China], Helsinki: Kirjayhtyma, 1997. Documentary book awarded the Finnish Government Non-Fiction Publication Prize [Valtion tiedonjulkistamispalkinto] in March 1998.
“Idol turned bully? America through a Chinese lens”, Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, Summer edition 1997.
Lies in ink, truth in blood: The role and impact of the Chinese press during the Beijing Spring of ’89, Discussion Paper, Boston: Shorenstein Barone Center, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 1990.
Mureneva muuri. Vuosi kiinalaisena [The crumbling wall. One year as a Chinese] Helsinki: Kirjayhtymä, 1988. [Documentary book about China. Received honorary mention by Finlandia Non-Fiction Literature Committee 1989].
Awards, Grants, Scholarships, Positions of trust:
February 2017: Invited to join inaugural advisory board of the Diplomatic Academy of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Canberra.
September 2014: Invited as member of advisory board of La Trobe Asia, Melbourne.
May 2013: Invited as member of editorial board of the Asan Forum by Asan Institute for Policy Studies, Seoul.
January 2011: Granted Albie Award 2010 for SIPRI report New Foreign Policy Actors in China (see
October 2007: Invited as member of steering committee of Swedish School of Advanced Asia-Pacific Studies (SSAAPS), Stockholm University
August 2007: Invited as board member of Thematic Network on Peace and Conflict Studies, ASEM Education Hub
September 2007: Invited as member of Advisory Board, China Centre, Palmenia Centre for Continuing Education, University of Helsinki.
November 2003: Invited by President of Finland Tarja Halonen to serve as honorary member of official delegation during the President’s state visit to the People’s Republic of China.
April 2002: Awarded Finnish Ministry of Education’s Library Scholarship Grant to write documentary book about the Taiwan Question (15,000 euro)
October 2001: Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation, Helsinki. Awarded grant for 6-month Chinese language reading course at Chinese University of Hong Kong-Yale University Language Center (25,000 Fmk)
October 1999: Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation, Helsinki. Awarded grant to write documentary book (with co-author Marja Sarvimäki) about East Asian societies (50,000 Fmk)
August 1999: WSOY Literary Foundation, Helsinki. Awarded grant to write documentary book (with co-author Marja Sarvimäki) about East Asian societies (10,000 Fmk)
April 1999: Finnish Ministry of Education’s Library Scholarship. Awarded grant to write documentary book about East Asian societies (10,000 Fmk)
February 1999: Finnish Cultural Foundation, Helsinki. Awarded travel grant for research trip to Japan (with co-author Marja Sarvimäki) for forthcoming book about East Asia (50,000 Fmk)
January 1999: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (NIAS), Copenhagen. Awarded travel grant (together with Marja Sarvimäki) for research work in Japan (11,000 DKr per person)
December 1998: Bang Il-Young Foundation, Seoul. Awarded four-month fellowship to conduct research in South Korea (travel fare plus 2,000,000 won per month)
September 1998: Republic of Korea, Ministry of Culture together with Finnish Ministry of Education. Invitation to visit South Korea as groundwork toward new book about China, Korea and Japan (travel expenses)
March 1998: Won the Finnish Government Non-Fiction Publication Award for Miljoona totuutta. Vuosikymmen Kiinassa, documentary book about China (30,000 Fmk)
February 1998: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (NIAS), Copenhagen. Awarded Nordic Guest Fellowship. To do research and write last chapter of A Million Truths. Ten Years in China
February 1998: Finnish Cultural Foundation, Helsinki. Awarded travel grant for research trip to Korea (with co-author Marja Sarvimäki) for forthcoming book about China, Korea, and Japan (44,000 Fmk)
September 1996: Finnish Non-Fiction Writers Association, Helsinki. Awarded travel grant for research trip to Harvard University in Boston for documentary book about China (8,000 Fmk)
September 1996: Kone Foundation, Helsinki. Awarded grant to write documentary book about China (50,000 Fmk)
Spring term 1990: Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Awarded fellowship at Shorenstein Center on Press, Politics, & Public Policy (US$10,000)
September 1988, September 1987: Kone Foundation, Helsinki. Awarded grant to write a documentary book about everyday life in China (2×10,000 Fmk)
March 1987: Finnish Cultural Foundation, Helsinki. Awarded grant to write a documentary book about everyday life in China (12,000 Fmk)
Select lectures, talks, papers, teaching assignments:
Invited speaker at Webinar hosted by the Australian Industry Group, 2 December 2020; title – “Australia’s trade relations with China“
Invited speaker at Webinar hosted by La Trobe University, 27 August 2020; title – “The China Challenge: Can a New Cold War be Avoided?“
Invited speaker at Webinar hosted by China Matters, 3 July 2020; title – “Australia-China relations during a time of rising tensions between Washington and Beijing“
Keynote Panelist at Asan Plenum 2019 hosted by the Asan Institute for Policy Studies, 24 April 2019; title – “Values or Interests?“
Invited speaker at Panel Discussion hosted by the Lowy Institute, 20 August 2018; title – “China, Asia, and Australia in the South China Sea“
Guest on Saturday Extra by the ABC, 30 June 2018; title – “A Foreign Affair – focus on China“
Guest on City Road Podcast, March 2018; title – “Linda Jakobson from China Matters on Australia’s relationship with China“
Invited speaker at Ideas & Society Program hosted by La Trobe University, 26 October 2017; title – ‘Kevin Rudd on China’s Rise and a New World Order“
Invited speaker at AIIA National Conference 2017 hosted by Australian Institute of International Affairs (AIIA), 16 October 2017; title – “Foreign Policy in an Uncertain World”
Interviewee for Young China Watchers, 22 July 2017; title – “Voices on China – Linda Jakobson: Founding Director and CEO of China Matters“
Keynote Panelist at La Trobe Ideas and Society event, November 2016; title – “How to respond to China’s rise?“
Invited speaker at AIIA 80th Anniversary National Conference hosted by Australian Institute of International Affairs (AIIA), 21 November 2013; title – “Foreign Policy Priorities for Australia”
Invited speaker at Aspen Ministerial Forum “Regional Architecture for the Pacific Century” chaired by Madeleine K. Albright, Seoul, November 2013; title – “Northeast Asian security dynamics”
Invited speaker at the Lowy Institute, 24 September 2013; title – “In Conversation: Linda Jakobson and Hahm Chaibong on China-South Korea Relations“
China Changing Lecture 2013: Lowy Institute for International Policy, Sydney, August 2013; title – “China’s new pro-active diplomacy: What does it mean?”
Invited speaker at 2013 PLA Conference Pacific: “The PLA in the Hu Jintao Era: Enduring reforms or Superficial Change?” hosted by US Pacific Command (USPACOM) and National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR), Camp Smith, Hawaii, August 2013; title – “Maritime security actors in China”
Invited speaker, the Lowy Institute, 14 June 2013; title – “In Conversation: Bonnie Glaser and Linda Jakobson – The US and the East China Sea Dispute”
Paper presenter at conference “Does Leadership Matter? China’s rise and its fifth generation leadership”, Institute for Defense Studies, Oslo, May 2013. Paper: “Fragmentation in Chinese foreign policy decision making”
Invited plenum speaker at Inaugural Asan China Forum, Asan Institute for Policy Studies, Seoul, December 2012; title –“Northeast Asian security dynamics”
Invited speaker, the Lowy Institute, 16 November 2012; title – “In Conversation: Sam Roggeveen and Linda Jakobson – New Chinese Leadership”
Invited speaker at conference “China’s Global Behavior Under the Fifth Generation” hosted by US National Intelligence Council (NIC), Washington DC, November 2011; title –“Implications of pluralization of Chinese foreign policy decision-making”
Invited speaker at conference ”The PLA’s Role in National Security Policy-Making” organized by CAPS, CEIP, Rand and US NDU, Taipei November 2011; title – “PLA and maritime security actors”
Lowy Lunch Series Lecture, Lowy Institute for International Affairs, Sydney, June 2011; title – “New Foreign Policy Actors in China”
Food for Thought Lecture, hosted by National Australian Bank and Lowy Institute for International Policy, May 2011; title – “How China Sees the World”
Geneva Centre for Security Studies, November 2010. Lectures on “China’s Energy and Climate Policies”
Seminar at the Canadian Secret Intelligence Service (CSIS Canada) Ottawa, October 2010. Presentation: “China’s evolving interest in the Arctic”
Geneva Centre for Security Studies, May 2010. Lectures on “China, the United States and European Union: A Chinese Perspective”
Kissinger Institute, Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington DC, October 2009. Presentation: “Climate security and China”
Asia-Pacific Security Forum, Taipei August 2009. Paper: “A View from Beijing of the New Era of Cross-Strait Relations under Ma Ying-jeou”
Stockholm China Forum, Stockholm May 2009. Presentation: “China’s Climate Policies before Copenhagen”
Launch Event of SIPRI’s China and Global Security Programme, Stockholm, May 2009. Presentation: “Chinese foreign and security policy in Africa”
Conference ”Implications of China’s Transition”, Wilton Park, United Kingdom March 2009. Presentation: “Climate security and China”
Conference “Beijing’s Olympic Challenge”, Parliament of Finland, Helsinki May 2008. Presentation: “Political Implications for China of the Beijing Olympics”
Lunch seminar, George Washington University, DC April 2008. Presentation: “Does China Have an Energy Diplomacy?”
International Studies Association (ISA) Convention, San Francisco March 2008. Paper: “China’s Africa Policies. Drivers and Constraints”
Conference “Global Strategic Review” hosted by International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS), Geneva, September 2007. Paper: “Understanding China’s Energy Security”
Inaugural conference of Thematic Network on Peace and Conflict Studies, ASEM Education Hub, Copenhagen August 2007. Presentation: “A Greater Chinese Union. Seeking a solution to Taiwan’s Unresolved Status”
Lunch seminar, Fairbank Center, Harvard University, May 2007. Presentation: “Innovation with Chinese Characteristics. China’s High-tech Ambitions”
Mid-level cadre MBA class, School of Public Policy and Management, Qinghua University Beijing April 2007. Guest lecture: “Innovation with Chinese Characteristics”
Conference “New Asian Dynamics in Science, Technology and Innovation”, Gyleleje, Denmark, September 2006. Paper: “China’s new R&D focus: The meaning and intent of ‘indigenous innovation’”
ASEM workshop on energy and climate change, organized by FIIA and Renmin University of China, Helsinki June 2006. Presentation: “Scarce Common Resources, Different Norms. Energy security of ASEM and implications in international relations”
International conference on energy and clean technology in Asia, organized by Hart International, Beijing, November 2005. Keynote address: “China’s energy security and its implications for the country’s foreign policy”.
International conference “China’s Transforming Society and Foreign policy”, organized by Foreign Affairs Committee of Finland’s Parliament and FIIA, Helsinki, April 2005. Presentation: “China’s transforming foreign policy”
Conference “Taiwan-China Cross-Straits Relations – Regional Security in East Asia” organized by the European Alliance for Asian Studies, Madrid November 2004. Paper: “A ‘Greater Chinese Union’ – Form Rather Than Substance. How an Ultimate Settlement across the Taiwan Strait Might Look”
Conference “Taiwan-China Cross-Straits Relations – Regional Security in East Asia” organized by the European Alliance for Asian Studies, Paris November 2004. Paper: “A ‘Greater Chinese Union’ – Form Rather Than Substance. How an Ultimate Settlement across the Taiwan Strait Might Look”
University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) October 2004. Lecture: “Greater Chinese Union – A possible solution in the Taiwan Straits”
International seminar “Growing Interdependence of Greater China: Prospects and Pitfalls” organized by Bank of Finland, FIIA and Finnish Innovation Fund (Sitra), Helsinki June 2004. Presentation: “Political Overview of Greater China”
International workshop “The Volatile Taiwan Strait: Can Peace be Achieved?” organized by FIIA, Helsinki, May 2004. Paper: “Models for Political Integration: A ‘Greater Chinese Union’”
Conference “China’s Leadership Changes” Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies, Honolulu, May 2003. Presentation: “Grassroots Political Reform and Village Elections in China”
Syracuse University/City University in Hong Kong, 10-week course on East Asian Culture, Business, and Politics, Spring 2003
Syracuse University/City University in Hong Kong, 10 week course on East Asian Culture, Business, and Politics, Autumn 2002
Syracuse University/City University in Hong Kong, three sessions for course on Economic Development in China, Winter 2002
Economic China Studies, Post Graduate Lecture Series, Helsinki University, April-May 2001. Lecture: “China Modernization and Changing Chinese Society”
Asia Studies Post Graduate Course, University of Turku. (Video lectures to 7 universities in Finland), May 2001. Lecture: “Kim Dae-Jung’s Sunshine Policy and Prospects for Korean Unification”.
Stockholm University, Center for Asia Pacific Studies, April 2001. Presentation: “An Attempt to Avoid Chaos in the Chinese Countryside: Village Election Reform and its Implications”.
ISA Convention, Chicago, February 2001. Paper: “Post-Communist Modernisation at the Crossroads: Russia and China in Comparative Perspective” (together with Christer Pursiainen)
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Center for China Studies, December 2000. Presentation: “An Attempt to Avoid Chaos in the Chinese Countryside: Village Election Reform and its Implications”
International Crisis Group board meeting, Taipei February 2000. Presentation: “The Crisis of Faith, and Political Reform in China”
University of Riika, Latvia; Asia Update Conference arranged by Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (NIAS), May 1999. Lecture: “Is China Democratizing? Village Election Reform in China”
Harvard University, Fairbank Center of East Asian Studies, Boston, November 1998. Presentation: “An Attempt to Curb Chaos in the Chinese Countryside: The so-called Village Democracy Reform”
Lund University, Sweden, May 1998. Presentation: “Village Democracy Reform in China”
Harvard Law School, Boston April 1990. Lecture: “The Role and Impact of the Chinese Journalists during the Beijing Spring of ’89”
Shorenstein Center on Press, Politics, & Public Policy, Harvard University, lunch lecture, Boston March 1990. Presentation: “The Role and Impact of the Chinese Journalists during the Beijing Spring of ’89”
English: mother tongue (English mother)
Finnish: fluent (Finnish father)
Mandarin Chinese: excellent
Japanese, French: elementary knowledge
Elementary and Junior High School in Pelham, New York 1965-1972
Anglo-American School, Stockholm 1973
Minerva High School, Stockholm, 1974
Senior High School: Tölö Svenska Samskolan, Helsinki 1975-1977
Helsinki University, B.A. (major: political history) 1978-1983
Beijing Normal College, Beijing, Chinese language studies, spring term 1987, spring term 1989
Shandong Teachers University, Jinan, Chinese studies, autumn term 1988
Japanese Language School, Tokyo, elementary Japanese studies, 2 months in 1991
Chinese University in Hong Kong, Yale University Language Center, Hong Kong, 6 months Mandarin reading course Sep 2001-Feb 2002